Male Birdwings

Ornithoptera priamus priamus
Ornithoptera croesus croesus f. wallacei
Ornithoptera priamus urvillianus
Ornithopera aesacus
Ornithoptera priamus priamus - The priamus group contains 17 subspecies. Most are green but three are blue. Ornithoptera priamus priamus is the largest and is from the island of Ceram, Indonesia. The various priamus subspecies are found on many islands of eastern Indonesia, throughout Papua/New Guinea, and northern Australia. The noteable differences between subspecies are size and the number of black and gold dots on the hind wings.
Ornithoptera croesus croesus - The croesus group contains two subspecies but some people call two of the forms subspecies. The example here is sometimes called Ornithoptera croesus wallacei. This specimen is from Mandioli Island. The subspecies/forms disagreement exists because the three are found on three islands very near each other. The universally recognized subspecies lydius is geographically separated from croesus and the female looks very different.
Ornithoptera priamus urvillianus - Urvillianus is one of the blue subspecies from the priamus group. It is found on most of the islands that make up the Solomons and the extreme northeast islands of Papua/New Guinea.
Ornithoptera aesacus - Although closely related to the primaus group, aesacus is a separate species found only on Obi Island, Indonesia. It is threatened by development. There are no subspecies or forms but there are some noted variations between individuals.

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